Design and synthesis of nitrate esters of aromatic heterocyclic compounds as pharmacological preconditioning agents

Theano Fotopoulou, Efstathios K. Iliodromitis, Maria Koufaki, Andrew Tsotinis, Anastasia Zoga, Vassilis Gizas, Anastasia Pyriochou, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou, Dimitrios Th Kremastinos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) constitutes an endogenous protective mechanism in which one or more brief periods of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion render the myocardium resistant to a subsequent more-sustained ischemic insult. Pharmacological preconditioning represents an ideal alternative of IPC. We now describe the design and synthesis of indole, quinoline, and purine systems with an attached pharmacophoric nitrate ester group. The indole and quinoline derivatives 4 and 5 possess structural features of the nitrate containing KATP channel openers. Purine analogues 11 and 12, substituted at the position 6 by a piperidine moiety and at position 9 by an alkyl nitrate, could combine the effects of the nitrate containing KATP channel openers and those of adenosine. Compound 13 bears the nicotinamide moiety of nicorandil instead of nitrate ester. Compounds 4, 5, and 11 reduced infarction and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) at reperfusion in anesthetized rabbits. Compounds 12 and 13 did not significantly reduce the infarct size. Analogues 4 and 5 increased cGMP and MDA during ischemia, while combined analogue 4 and mitoKATP blocker 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD) abrogated this benefit suggesting an action through mitoKATP channel opening. Treatment with derivative 11 combined with 5-HD as well as treatment with 11 and adenosine receptor blocker 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (SPT) did not abrogate cardioprotection. Compound 11 is a lead molecule for the synthesis of novel analogues possessing a dual mode of action through cGMP-mitoKATP channel opening-free radicals and through adenosine receptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4523-4531
Number of pages9
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Adenosine
  • Infarct size
  • K channel openers
  • Pharmacological preconditioning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Design and synthesis of nitrate esters of aromatic heterocyclic compounds as pharmacological preconditioning agents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this