COVID-19 waves in an urban setting 2020–2022: an electronic medical record analysis

Yi shuan Elaine Chen, Susan H. Gawel, Pankaja Desai, Juan Rojas, Hannah J. Barbian, Nagarjuna Tippireddy, Rajkamal Gopinath, Sharon Schneider, Anthony Orzechowski, Gavin Cloherty, Alan Landay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Global and national surveillance efforts have tracked COVID-19 incidence and clinical outcomes, but few studies have compared comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes across each wave of the pandemic. We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of a large urban healthcare system to determine the associations between presenting comorbidities and clinical outcomes during the pandemic. Methods: We analyzed registry data for all inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 from March 2020 through September 2022 (N = 44,499). Clinical outcomes were death, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Demographic and clinical outcomes data were analyzed overall and for each wave. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between age, sex, race, ethnicity, comorbidities, and mortality. Results: Waves 2 and 3 (Alpha and Delta variants) were associated with greater hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and mortality than other variants. Chronic pulmonary disease was the most common comorbid condition across all age groups and waves. Mortality rates were higher in older patients but decreased across all age groups in later waves. In every wave, mortality was associated with renal disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic pulmonary disease. Multivariable analysis found that liver disease and renal disease were significantly associated with mortality, hospitalization, and ICU admission, and diabetes was significantly associated with hospitalization and ICU admission. Conclusion: The COVID-19 registry is a valuable resource to identify risk factors for clinical outcomes. Our findings may inform risk stratification and care planning for patients with COVID-19 based on age and comorbid conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1323481
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • electronic health records
  • mortality
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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