Coffee, Caffeine Metabolism Genotype and Disease Progression in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer Managed with Active Surveillance

Justin R. Gregg, David S. Lopez, Chad Reichard, Jiali Zheng, Wenhui Wu, Yuanqing Ye, Brian Chapin, Jeri Kim, Carrie R. Daniel, John Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Purpose:Active surveillance is increasingly used as a management strategy for localized prostate cancer. Coffee intake has been associated with a lower prostate cancer incidence. We assessed whether coffee was associated with disease progression in men on active surveillance.Materials and Methods:A total of 411 patients with newly diagnosed Gleason score 6 or 7 prostate cancer were enrolled on a prospective active surveillance protocol for at least 6 months and completed a baseline dietary assessment. The active surveillance protocol included a biennial monitoring regimen with disease progression defined as an increase in the Gleason score. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations of coffee intake with progression-free survival. We also evaluated patient genotype in the caffeine metabolism related single nucleotide polymorphism rs762551.Results:Median followup was 36 months (range 6 to 126) and the Gleason score progressed in 76 of the 411 patients (18.5%). Compared to 0 cups per day, in the multivariable model adjusting for prostate specific antigen, patient age and tumor length, less than 1 cup (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.40-1.71), 1 to 1.9 cups (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29-1.43), 2 to 3.9 cups (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.35-1.47) and 4 cups or more (HR 1.67, 95% CI 0.81-3.45) were not significantly associated with progression-free survival (p for nonlinearity = 0.01). Patients with low/moderate coffee intake and the AA fast caffeine metabolizer genotype were less likely to experience grade progression than nonconsumers (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.88, p = 0.03).Conclusions:Low to moderate coffee intake appears safe in men on active surveillance of localized prostate cancer. Further work is needed to determine whether high consumption is associated with shorter progression-free survival in sensitive groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-314
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • caffeine
  • coffee
  • genetic variation
  • neoplasm grading
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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