Causal Diagrams and Multivariate Analysis III: Confound It!

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This commentary concludes my series concerning inclusion of variables in multivariate analyses. We take up the issues of confounding and effect modification and summarize the work we have thus far done. Finally, we provide a rough algorithm to help guide us through the maze of possibilities that we have outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-147
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015


  • Confounder
  • Effect modification
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Precision variable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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