Breast biomarker immunocytochemistry

Soheila Korourian, Asangi R. Kumarapeli, V. Suzanne Klimberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Organization, more than 20 morphologic subtypes of breast cancer have been recognized. By gene expression, invasive breast cancer is classified into at least four major subtypes; luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu-positive, and triple-negative cancers. The biology and the prognosis of these subtypes are vastly different. It is well recognized that genetic profiles of these cancer subtypes are also interlinked with the traditional breast biomarkers. According to the US National Institutes of Health's Working Group and Biomarkers Consortium, a biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or a pharmacologic response to a therapeutic intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Breast
Subtitle of host publicationComprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases
PublisherElsevier Inc.
ISBN (Print)9780323359559
StatePublished - 2018


  • Biomarker
  • Hormone receptors
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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