Apelin regulates nuclear factor-κB's involvement in the inflammatory response of pancreatitis

Song Han, Ella W. Englander, Guillermo A. Gomez, George H. Greeley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objectives Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatitis. Earlier studies from our laboratory showed that experimental pancreatitis activated the pancreatic apelin-APJ axis robustly in mice. Apelin signaling reduced neutrophil invasion and the activation of pancreatic nuclear factor (NF)-κB in mice with experimental pancreatitis. Methods The aim of this study was to assess whether apelin-induced inhibition of pancreatic NF-κB activation was linked mechanistically to apelin's inhibition of pancreatic inflammatory mediator up-regulation in mice with cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis (CP). Whether apelin's inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB binding to the promoter region of IL-1β was examined. The effects of apelin exposure on pancreatic IκB degradation/replenishment and membrane levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C were measured. Results Results demonstrated that apelin inhibited the up-regulation of pancreatic tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α/β, and IL-1β expression significantly in mice with CP. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay findings showed that apelin inhibited NF-κB binding to a putative NF-κB binding site in the IL-1β promoter. Apelin exposure reduced the pancreatic membrane levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C-δ and enhanced the replenishment of pancreatic IκB proteins. Conclusions Together, these findings indicated that the inhibition of NF-κB activation by apelin was a mechanism behind the reduced pancreatic levels of inflammatory mediators in CP mice exposed to apelin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-70
Number of pages7
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • APJ
  • PKC
  • apelin
  • inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Hepatology
  • Endocrinology


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