A Measure of Interpersonal Dependency

Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, Gerald L. Klerman, Harrison G. Gough, James Barrett, Sheldon J. Korchin, Paul Chodoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

402 Scopus citations


Interpersonal dependency refers to a complex of thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors revolving around needs to associate closely with valued other people. Its conceptual sources include the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, social learning theories of dependency, and the ethological theory of attachment. A review of existing self-report inventories revealed none that adequately assessed interpersonal dependency. A new 48-item self-report inventory which assesses interpersonal dependency in adults was developed, using a sample of 220 normals and 180 psychiatric patients. It was cross-validated on two additional samples. Three components of interpersonal dependency emerged: emotional reliance on another person, lack of social self-confidence, and assertion of autonomy. The relationship of these components with normals and patients was discussed, as well as with the concepts of attachment and dependency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-618
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 1977
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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