A goal-oriented hemodynamic approach to acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock—A single center experience

Vince Siebert, Jake Goldstein, Rizwan Khan, John Lopez, Amir Darki, Bruce Lewis, Lowell Steen, Demetrios Doukas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) is the most common cause of mortality following AMI, and treatment algorithms vary widely. We report the results of an analysis using time-sensitive, hemodynamic goals in the treatment of AMI-CS in a single center study. Methods: Consecutive patients with AMI-CS from November 2016 through December 2021 were included in our retrospective analysis. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed using the electronic medical records. We identified 63 total patients who were admitted to our center with AMI-CS, and we excluded patients who did not have clear timing of AMI onset or CS onset. We evaluated the rate of survival to hospital discharge based on the quantity of certain time-sensitive hemodynamic goals were met. Results: We identified 63 patients who met criteria for AMI-CS, 39 (62%) of whom survived to hospital discharge. Odds of survival were closely related to the achievement of four time-dependent goals: cardiac power output (CPO) >0.6 Watts (W), pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) >1, lactate <4 mmol/L, and <2 vasopressors required. Of the 63 total patients, 36 (57%) received intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and 18 (29%) received an Impella CP (Abiomed) as an initial mechanical circulatory support strategy. Six patients were escalated from IABP to Impella CP for additional hemodynamic support. Nine patients were treated with vasopressors/inotropes alone. Regarding the 39 patients who survived to hospital discharge, 75% of patients met 3 or 4 goals at 24 h, whereas only 16% of deceased patients met 3 or 4 goals at 24 h. Of the 24 patients who did not survive to hospital discharge, 18 (75%) met either 0–1 goal at 24 h. There was no effect of the initial treatment strategy on achieving 3–4 goals at 24 h. Conclusion: Our study evaluated the association of meeting 4 time-sensitive goals (CPO >0.6 W, PAPi >1, <2 vasopressors, and lactate <4 mmol/L) at 24 h after treatment for AMI-CS with in-hospital mortality. Our data show, in line with previous data, that the higher number of goals met at 24 h was associated with improved in-hospital mortality regardless of treatment strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-576
Number of pages8
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiogenic shock
  • hemodynamics
  • myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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